In general, the lobbying operations of peace groups focus too much 
    on politicians and not enough on media. They'll spend months trying to 
    get a half hour meeting with a Congressperson about Nicaragua and 
    ignore the fact that every day that Congressperson is reading lies in
    "The New York Times" or "The Washington Post".  That's a little naive.
      I'd love to see lobbying organizations aim 10-20% of their efforts
    at the media.  Dozens of small, organized grassroots groups who
    regularly write, call, telegram and petition their local and national
    media in the ways I've mentioned would be ideal.  It doesn't require a
    lot to have an impact.  This kind of lobbying would reinforce the usual
    kind, since politicians would then see peace leaders actually quoted in
    newspapers or participating in a debate on Nightline.  We continue to 
    ignore the media at our peril, because politicians don't ignore the 
    media--they swear by it.  They read the two papers of record and watch
    the nightly news programs very closely.

      TV programmers are often spineless. They believe themselves to be
    majoritarian, programming "what the viewers want."  All private media
    outlets are, after all, businesses.  What they are selling actually, is
    access to their viewers.  They don't sell news and entertainment.  They
    sell advertising time or space. So it is very important for them to 
    attract and keep viewers and readers so that advertisers will want to 
    buy their advertising time or space.  That's why programmers are so
    sensitive to what the viewers say.  They need to hear from viewers who
    are peace oriented, who are angry about these panels, and who suggest
    new people who should be on these panels.

    The first thing is to get beyond this syndrome where people watch the
    media and grumble about it.  It's just not good enough.  You have to
    take your complaints directly to the media.  Don't take the media 
    lying down.  

       -- from an interview with Jeff Cohen, Executive Director of FAIR

    The following is a Media Resources List I recently received from FAIR.
    It contains a great deal of data about the information industry in our
    country.  It's important to treat the major media the same way one does
    the politicians--let them hear from you--especially when you disagree
    with the way they are, or are NOT covering an issue you care about.

                            FAIR Resource Lists

                          A. Recommended Reading
                          B. The Media Business
                          C. Alternative Media  
                          D. Media Analysis    
                          E. Journalism Organizations
                          F. National News Media     

                     Adapted from "Unreliable Sources: 
		A Guide to Detecting Bias in the News Media" 
		    by Martin A. Lee and Norman Soloman

                     Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting
                  130 West 25th Street, New York, NY 10001


                          A: RECOMMENDED READING

Aronson, James. 
"The Press and the Cold War."
Boston: Beacon Press, 1970. 
Shows key role of media in promoting Cold War stereotypes, myths and hatreds.

Bagdikian, Ben. 
"The Media Monopoly."
Boston: Beacon Press, 1990 (third edition).
The classic study of concentrated corporate ownership and its impact on mass 

Barnouw, Erik. 
"The Sponsor: Notes On A Modern Potentate."
New York: Oxford University Press 1978. 
Examines the influence of advertising on broadcast media.

Bennett, W. Lance. 
"News: The Politics of Illusion."
New York: Longman, 1988. 
Explores why, in a society with so much information, people are so confused 
about politics, and how media practices--not public apathy--are key to this 

Bray, Howard.
"The Pillars of the Post."
New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1980.
Studies the rise of the Washington Post from the moment Wall Street Tycoon
Eugene Meyer bought it at a bankruptcy sale to its present eminence under
another tycoon--his daughter Katharine Graham.

Cross, Donna Woolfolk. 
"Mediaspeak: How Television Makes Up Your Mind."
New York: Mentor, 1983. 
A telling look at TV's wide range of manipulative techniques.

Cockburn, Alexander. 
"Corruptions of Empire."
London: Verso, 1988. 
A collection of essays by a gifted polemicist and media critic.

Davis, Deborah.
"Katharine The Great.  Katharine Graham and the Washington Post."
Bethesda: National Press, Inc., 1987 (second edition).
Biographically details the extent and scope of Katharine Graham's influence.

Diamond, Sara. 
"Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right."
Boston: South End Press, 1989. 
Analyzes televangelists and right-wing religious broadcast media.

Entman, Robert M. 
"Democracy Without Citizens: Media and the Decay of American Politics."
New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. 
A deft academic examination of how institutional patterns deprive us of 
a "free press."

Gans, Herbert. 
"Deciding What's News."
New York: Vintage, 1980. 
A sociologist takes apart the functional criteria for what qualifies as "news."

Gitlin, Todd. 
"The Whole World Is Watching:  Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New 
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. 
A study of how mass media catalyzed and eventually undermined the New Left 
movement of the 1960s.

Hallin, Daniel C. 
"Uncensored War."
New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. 
The definitive history of the media's role in the escalation and demise of 
the U.S. war in Vietnam.

Herman, Edward S. and Brodhead, Frank. 
"The Rise and Fall of the Bulgarian Connection."
New York: Sheridan Square Publications, 1986. 
A case study of "free world" disinformation and the shooting of Pope John 
Paul II.

Herman, Edward S. and Chomsky, Noam. 
"Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media."
New York: Pantheon, 1988. 
A probing expose of biased reporting on human rights and foreign policy issues.

Hertsgaard, Mark. 
"On Bended Knee: The Press and the Reagan Presidency."
New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1988. 
The definitive work on U.S. media performance during the Reagan era.

Lee, Martin A. and Norman Solomon. 
"Unreliable Sources: A Guide to Detecting Bias in News Media."
New York: Lyle Stuart, 1990. 
Examines the domination of news media by big government and big business. 
A vital handbook for seeing through biased coverage of a wide range of 
domestic and foreign policy issues.

Mander, Jerry. 
"Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television."
New York: William Morrow, 1974. 
A provocative analysis of the destructive impact of television in our society.

McClain, Leanita. 
"A Foot In Each World: Essays and Articles."
Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1986. 
A wrenching book about modern racism, written by a young black editor at the 
Chicago Tribune before her suicide.

Miller, Mark Crispin. 
"Boxed In: The Culture of TV."
Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1988. 
A witty and astute critique of the television medium in America.

Parenti, Michael. 
"Inventing Reality: The Politics of the Mass Media."
New York: St. Martin's, 1986. 
A concise and insightful analysis of U.S. news media bias.

Peck, Abe. 
"Uncovering the Sixties: The Life and Times of the Underground Press."
New York: Pantheon, 1985. 
A history of the role of the underground press in the 1960s, and its 
continuing legacy.

Rapping, Elayne. 
"The Looking Glass World of Nonfiction TV."
Boston: South End Press, 1987. 
How mass culture--news, sports, commercials, games show--promotes the 
ideological bias of media owners.

Schiller, Herbert I. 
"Culture, Inc.: The Corporate Takeover of Public Expression."
New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. 
Analyzes the corporate structure of mass communications and how it constrains 
expression in a wide range of news and entertainment media. See also Schiller's
The Mind Managers, Beacon Press, 1973.

Seldes, George. 
"Witness to a Century."
New York: Ballantine, 1987. 
The dean of American media criticism reflects on eight decades of journalism.

Shaheen, Jack. 
"The TV Arab."
Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1984. 
A probing study of racial stereotyping in news and entertainment.

Stone, I.F.
"The Haunted Fifties, In a Time of Torment, and Polemics and Prophesies."
Boston: Little, Brown, 1989. 
Three-volume series of edited writings from an eminent media critic.

Washburn, Patrick S.
"A Question of Sedition: The Federal Government's Investigation of the 
Black Press During World War II."
New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. 
Documents official steps against the black press, including FBI efforts to 
stigmatize black reporters who protested discrimination.



                           B: THE MEDIA BUSINESS

The world's ten biggest media companies:

 1. Time Warner
 2. Bertelsmann, A.G. (West Germany)
 3. CapCities/ABC
 4. Thomson (Canada)
 5. News Corporation Ltd. (Murdoch)
 6. Hachette (France)
 7. Gannett Company
 8. Knight-Ridder Inc.
 9. Pearson PLC (Great Britain)
10. Maxwell Communication Corp. (Great Britain)

[Source: "MacLean's" 7-17-89]

The 23 dominant corporations that control most of the U.S. media 
(newspapers, magazines, books, television, and motion pictures, 
in alphabetical order):

Bertelsmann, AG. (books)
Capital Cities/ABC (newspapers, broadcasting)
Cox Communications (newspapers)
CBS (broadcasting)
Buena Vista Films (Disney; motion pictures)
Dow Jones (newspapers)
Gannett (newspapers)
General Electric (television)
Paramount Communications (books, motion pictures)
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich (books)
Hearst (newspapers, magazines)
Ingersoll (newspapers)
International Thomson (newspapers)
Knight-Ridder (newspapers)
Media News Group (newspapers)
Newhouse (newspapers, books)
News Corporation Ltd. (newspapers, magazines, motion pictures)
New York Times (newspapers)
Reader's Digest Association (books, magazines)
Scripps-Howard (newspapers)
Time Warner (magazines, books, motion pictures)
Times Mirror (newspapers)
Tribune Company (magazines)

[Source: "The Media Monopoly", Ben Bagdikian]

The fourteen companies that dominate the daily newspaper industry:

 1. Gannett Company--"USA Today" and 87 other dailies. 
 2. Knight-Ridder, Inc.--"Philadelphia Inquirer", "Miami Herald" and 27 others.
 3. Newhouse Newspapers--"Staten Island Advance", "Portland Oregonian", and 24 
 4. Tribune Company--"Chicago Tribune", "New York Daily News" and 7 others.
 5. Times Mirror--"Los Angeles Times", "Newsday" and six others. 
 6. Dow Jones & Co.--"Wall Street Journal" and 22 Ottaway newspapers.
 7. International Thomson--120 dailies (mainly in Canada). 
 8. New York Times Company--"New York Times" and 26 others.
 9. Scripps-Howard Newspapers--"Denver Rocky Mountain News" and 22 others.
10. Hearst--"San Francisco Examiner" and 13 others.
11. Cox--"Atlanta Journal and Constitution" and 19 others.
12. News Corp. Ltd--"Boston Herald" and 2 others.
13. Media News Group--"Dallas Times Herald" and 17 others.
14. Ingersoll Newspapers--"New Haven Register" and 36 others.

The three dominant corporations in the magazine business:

1. Time Warner--"Time", "People", "Sports Illustrated", "Fortune", etc.
2. News Corp.--"TV Guide", "Seventeen", New York", "Premiere", etc.
3. Hearst--"Good Housekeeping", "Cosmopolitan", "Esquire", etc.

The six companies that dominate book publishing:

1. Paramount Communications--Simon & Schuster, Pocket Books, etc.
2. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich
3. Time Warner--Little, Brown, Warner Books, Book-of-the-Month Club
4. Bertelsmann, A G.--Doubleday, Bantam, Dell, etc.
5. Reader's Digest Association
6. Newhouse--Random House, Ballantine, etc.

The four firms that dominate the motion picture industry:

1. Buena Vista--Disney
2. Paramount Communications--Paramount Pictures
3. Murdoch--20th Century Fox
4. Time Warner--Warner Brothers

[Source: "The Media Monopoly", Ben Bagdikian]

The 15 top network television advertisers (January through June 1989):

 1. General Motors
 2. Philip Morris Companies, Inc.
 3. Proctor & Gamble Co.
 4. Kellogg Co.
 5. McDonald's Corp.
 6. Ford Motor Co.
 7. Unilever N.V.
 8. Johnson & Johnson
 9. Pepsico, Inc.
10. Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.
11. Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc.
12. American Home Products Corp.
13. Chrysler Corp.
14. Sears Roebuck & Co.
15. Coca Cola, Co.

[Source: Television Bureau of Advertising]



                           C: ALTERNATIVE MEDIA


"Black Scholar"
485 65th Street
Oakland, CA 94609

"Church and State"
Americans United for Separation of Church and State
8120 Tenton Street
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4753

"Covert Action Information Bulletin"
Box 50272
Washington, DC 20004

33 W. 17th Street
New York, NY 10011

"In These Times"
2040 N. Milwaukee
Chicago, IL 60647

"Listen Real Loud"
AFSC Nationwide Women's Program
1501 Cherry Street
Philadelphia, PA 19102

Midwest Center For Labor Research
3411 W. Diversy, Suite 10
Chicago, IL 60647

"Mother Jones"
Foundation for National
1663 Mission Street
San Francisco, CA 94103

"NACLA Report on the Americas"
475 Riverside Drive, Suite 454
New York, NY 10115

"The Nation"
72 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10011

"National Catholic Reporter"
115 E. Armour Boulevard
Kansas City, MO 64111

"New Directions for Women"
108 West Palisade Avenue
Englewood, NJ 07631

Political Research Associates
678 Massachusetts Avenue, Suite 205 
Cambridge, MA 01239

"The Progressive"
409 E. Main Street
Madison, WI 53703

"Public Citizen"
2000 P. Street, NW, #700
Washington, DC 20036

1321 Otis Street, NE
Washington, DC 20017

5100 Leona Street
Oakland, CA 94619

"Utne Reader"
The Fawkes Building
1624 Harmon Place
Minneapolis, MN 55403

"Village Voice"
842 Broadway
New York, NY 10003

War Resisters League
339 Lafayette Street
New York, NY 10012

Institute for Social and Cultural Communications
116 St. Botolph Street
Boston, MA 02115

To find out about local newsweeklies in your area, contact:

Association of Alternative Newsweeklies 
c/o Jane Sullivan 
Bay Guardian 
2700 l9th Street 
San Francisco, CA 94110 


2025 Eye Street, NW, #1104
Washington, DC 20006

College Press Service
2505 W. Second Avenue, Suite 7
Denver, CO 80219

The Data Center
464 19th Street
Oakland, CA 94612

Insight Features Networking for Democracy
3411 W. Diversey, Suite 5
Chicago, IL 60647

400 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10017

National Student News Service
Box 3161
Boston, MA 02101

Pacific News Service
450 Mission Street, Room 506
San Francisco, CA 94105



"American Dialogues"
Robert Foxworth
8033 Sunset Boulevard, #967
Los Angeles, CA 90046

"Common Ground"
Stanley Foundation
216 Sycamore Street, Suite 500
Muscatine, Iowa 52761

"Consider the Alternatives"
5808 Greene Street
Philadelphia, PA 19144

National Federation of Community Broadcasters
666 Eleventh Street, NW, Suite 805
Washington, D.C. 20001

"New Voices"
Public Interest Video Network
1642 R Street, NW
Washington, DC 20009

"The Other Americas Radio"
Box 85
Santa Barbara, CA 93102

Pacifica (Program Service)
3729 Cahuenga Boulevard West
North Hollywood, CA 91604

Radio for Peace International
Box 10689
Eugene, OR 97440

"Second Opinion "
Erwin Knoll (host) 
c/o The Progressive 
409 E. Main Street 
Madison, WI 53703 

"Undercurrents" (carries FAlR's weekly radio show)
130 W. 25 Street
New York, NY 10001

Women's International News Gathering Service
P.O. Box 5307
Kansas City, MO 64131


Alternative Views
Box 7279
Austin, TX 78713

Empowerment Project
1653 18th Street, Suite 3
Santa Monica, CA 90404

Global Vision
361 West Broadway
New York NY 10013

Media Network
121 Fulton Street
New York NY 10038

Paper Tiger/Deep Dish
339 Lafayette Street
New York NY 10012

Video Databank
37 S. Wabash
Chicago, IL 60603

The Video Project: Films and Videos for a Safe and Sustainable World
5332 College Avenue, Suite 101
Oakland, CA 94618


                         D: MEDIA ANALYSIS RESOURCES

"Adbusters: A Magazine of Media and Environmental Strategies"
The Media Foundation
1243 W. Seventh Avenue
Vancouver, British Columbia
V6H 1B7 Canada

"Columbia Journalism Review"
700 Journalism Building
Columbia University
New York NY 10027

Communications Consortium
1333 H Street, NW, 11th Floor
Washington, DC 20005

Center for War, Peace and the News Media
New York University
1021 Main Building
New York NY 10003

Essential Information
P.O. Box 19405
Washington, DC 20036

FAIR (Fairness & Accuracy in Reporting)
130 W. 25 Street
New York, NY 10001

Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation
80 Varick Street, Suite 3E
New York, NY 10013

625 Broadway, 9th Floor
New York NY 10012

"Lies of Our Times"
Institute for Media Analysis
145 W. 4th Street
New York, NY 10012

"Media & Values"
Media Action Research Center
Center for Media & Values
1962 South Shenandoah
Los Angeles, CA 90034
Media Alliance
Fort Mason Center, Building D290
San Francisco, CA 94123

Media Watch
1803 Mission Street, #7
Santa Cruz, CA 95060

Project Censored
Communications Studies Program
1801 E. Cotati Ave.
Sonoma State University
Rohnert Park, CA 94928

"Propaganda Review"
Media Alliance
Fort Mason Center, Room D290
San Francisco, CA 94123

53 W. Jackson Boulevard, Suite 731
Chicago, IL 60604

"St. Louis Journalism Review"
8380 Olive Boulevard
St. Louis, MO 63132

"Tyndall Report"
135 Rivington Street
New York, NY 10022

"The Democratic Communique'"
Union of Democratic Communications
P.O. Box 1220
Berkeley, CA 94701

"Washington Journalism Review"
2233 Wisconsin Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20007

Women's Institute for Freedom of the Press
3306 Ross P1ace, NW
Washington, DC 20008


                         E: JOURNALISM ORGANIZATIONS

American Society of Newspaper Editors
P.O. Box 17004
Washington, D.C. 20041

Article 19
90 Borough High Street
London SE1 1LL, United Kingdom

Black Press Institute
7917 South Exchange Avenue, Suite 205
Chicago, IL 60617

Center for Investigative Reporting
530 Howard Street
San Francisco, CA 94105

Committee to Protect Journalists
16 E. 42 Street, 3rd floor
New York NY 10017

Fund for Investigative Journalism
1755 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Suite 504
Washington, D.C. 20036

Journalists Without Borders
Antonio Maria Claret 133, First Floor, Door 3
08025 Barcelona, Spain

National Alliance of Third World Journalists
P.O. Box 43208
Washington, DC 20010

National Association of Black Journalists
11600 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA 22091

National Association of Hispanic Journalists
National Press Building, Suite 1193
Washington, D.C. 20045

National Writers Union
13 Astor Place, Seventh Floor
New York, NY 10003

Newspaper Guild
8611 Second Avenue
Silver Spring, MD 20910

Society of Professional Journalists
53 W. Jackson Boulevard, Suite 731
Chicago, IL 60604


                          F: NATIONAL NEWS MEDIA

Here are some important media addresses and phone numbers that you may want 
to write, call or telegram your own complaints about imbalanced coverage. 
You might also want to supplement this list with addresses of your local 

ABC "World News Tonight"                 "Face the Nation"
7 West 66th Street                       CBS News
New York, NY 10023                       2020 M Street, NW
212/887-4040                             Washington, DC 20036

Associated Press                         "Good Morning America"
50 Rockefeller Plaza                     ABC News
New York, NY 10020                       1965 Broadway
National Desk (212/621-1600)             New York, NY 10023
Foreign Desk (212/621-1663)              212/496-4800
Washington Bureau (202/828-6400)
                                         Larry King Live TV
"CBS Evening News"                       CNN
524 W. 57th Street                       111 Massachusetts Avenue, NW
New York, NY 10019                       Washington, DC 20001
212/975-3693                             202/898-7900

"CBS This Morning"                       Larry King Show--Radio
524 W. 57th Street                       Mutual Broadcasting
New York, NY 10019                       1755 So. Jefferson Davis Highway
212/975-2824                             Arlington, VA 22202
"Christian Science Monitor"
CSM Publishing Society                   "Los Angeles Times"
One Norway Street                        Times-Mirror Square
Boston, MA 02115                         Los Angeles, CA 90053
800/225-7090                             800/528-4637

CNN                                      "MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour"
One CNN Center                           P.O. Box 2626
Box 105366                               Washington, DC 20013
Atlanta, GA 30348                        703/998-2870
                                         "MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour"
CNN                                      WNET-TV
Washington Bureau                        356 W. 58th Street
111 Massachusetts Avenue, NW             New York, NY 10019
Washington, DC 20001                     212/560-3113
                                         "Meet the Press"
"Crossfire"                              NBC News
CNN                                      4001 Nebraska Avenue, NW
111 Massachusetts Avenue, NW             Washington, DC 20036
Washington, DC 20001                     202/885-4200
"Morning Edition/All Things Considered"  "Today" Show
National Public Radio                    NBC News
2025 M Street, NW                        30 Rockefeller Plaza
Washington, DC 20036                     New York, NY 10112
202/822-2000                             212/664-4249

"NBC Nightly News"                       United Press International
30 Rockefeller Plaza                     1400 Eye Street, NW
New York, NY 10112                       Washington, DC 20006
212/644-4971                             202/898-8000

"New York Times"                         "U.S. News & World Report"
229 W. 43rd Street                       2400 N Street, NW
New York, NY 10036                       Washington, DC 20037
212/556-1234                             202/955-2000

"New York Times"                         "USA Today"
Washington Bureau                        1000 Wilson Boulevard
1627 Eye Street, NW, 7th Floor           Arlington, VA 22229
Washington, DC 20006                     703/276-3400

"Newsweek"                               "Wall Street Journal"
444 Madison Avenue                       200 Liberty Street
New York, NY 10022                       New York, NY 10281
212/350-4000                             212/416-2000

"Nightline"                              "Washington Post"
ABC News                                 1150 15th Street, NW
47 W. 66th Street                        Washington, DC 20071
New York, NY 10023                       202/344-6000

"Nightline"                              "Washington Week In Review"
Ted Koppel                               WETA-TV
ABC News                                 P.O. Box 2626
1717 DeSales, NW                         Washington, DC 20013
Washington, DC 20036                     703/998-2626

"This Week With David Brinkley"
ABC News
1717 DeSales, NW
Washington, DC 20036

"Time" magazine
Time Warner, Inc.
Time & Life Building
Rockefeller Center
New York, NY 10020